Future Tense Part 3: Future Perfect

The future perfect is a tense that is used to express the idea of "will have." Some examples of sentences in the future perfect in English are:

1. By the time you arrive we will have already left= Ora che tu arrivi, io sarò già partito

2. I will have already bought the car by the time you can loan me the money= Avrò già comprato la macchina ora che puoi imprestarmi i soldi.

 

Here is how you do it:

1. You need the future tense of the verb Avere

Avrò = I will have
Avrai = You (singular) will have
Avrà = he/she will have
Avremo = We will have
Avrete = you (plural) will have
Avranno = They will have

2You need the past participle of the verb you are using.
To form a past partciple, start from the infinitve form of the verb. Infinitives end in either "are" "ere" or "ire" 

If the infinitive ends in "are" then you cut off the "are" and add the letters "ato" parlare ---> parl ---> parlato = spoken

If the infinitive ends in "ere" then you cut off the "ere" and add the letters "uto" vedere ---> ved ---> veduto = seen

If the infinitive ends in "ire" then you cut off the "ire" and add the letters "ito" finire ---> fin ---> finito = finished

 

OK...let's try some:

She will have spoken:

1. On the chart above find the translation for "she will have." She will have is translated Avrà

2. Now form your past participle with the verb to speak (parlare)
parlare ---> parl ---> parlato (I added "ato" because parlare ends 
in "are"

3. Now put the bold words together: Avrà parlato = She will have spoken

 

It is important to know that there is a list of verbs that (in the future perfect) are not conjugated with the future of avere. Rather, they are conjugated with the future of the verb "essere". Now, here are the verbs that take "essere" instead of "avere" irregular past particples are in parenthesis.

to arrive arrivare 
to go andare 
to go out uscire 
to enter entrare 
to come venire (venuto) 
to be essere (stato) 
to leave partire 
to stay, be stare (stato) 
to disappear sparire 
to come back tornare 
to be born nascere (nato) 
to die morire (morto) 
to remain rimanere (rimasto) 

Here is the verb "essere" in the future tense

Sarò (I) 
Sarai (you singular)
Sarà (he/she)
Saremo (we)
Sarete (you plural)
Saranno (they)

 

Let's try one:

I will have arrived:

1. On the chart above, find the "I" form of essere in the future tense. The "I" form is sarò

2. Now obtain your past particple: arrivare = to arrive. 
arrivare ---> arriv ---> arrivato

3. Now put the bold words together: Sarò arrivato = I will have arrived.

Always remember that when you use essere with the future perfect, the past particple must agree in number and gender with the subject

If the subject is masculine singular, the past particple ends in "O". If the subject is feminine singular, the past participle ends in "A". If the subject is masculine plural, the past particple ends in "I". If the subject is feminine singular, the past participle ends in "E".

arrivato (m.s.)......arrivata (f.s.).......arrivati (m.pl.).........arrivate (f.pl.)

 Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the Future Perfect:

1) Ora che tu torni, ........ di lavare i piatti = By the time you get back, I will have finished washing the dishes.

2) In questo momento il prossimo anno ....... e starò già cercando un lavoro = By this time next year, I will have graduated, and I will already be looking for a job.

3) Ella ......ogni paese nel mondo ora che avrà compiuto 50 anni = She will have visited every country in the world by the time she's 50.

4) Tu ........sicuramente ogni cosa che c'è da vedere a Milano = You will definitely have seen everything there is to see in Milan.

Answers:

Avrò già finito, sarò laureato, avrà visitato, avrai visto.

By Giacomo DePasquale

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