Stepping into the ancient towns of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata--often referred to as Forgotten Cities--is like stepping back in time. Indeed, time seems to have frozen at these sites, which offer a rare glimpse into the lives of the ancient Romans. Eerily preserved by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD the excavated towns offer a wealth of information about the civilization that built and populated the them. Modern day visitors to Napoli would be remiss not to visit at least one of these UNESCO World Heritage sites, if only to understand how living in the shadow of the great Vesuvius shapes the lives of the Neopolitan people even today.
The city of Pompeii is located in the Campania region of Italy, close to the bustling city of Naples. The town was destroyed by the volcanic eruption, which collapsed buildings and buried the town under a mountain of ash. The city lay, buried and forgotten, for almost 1,700 years until it was accidentally discovered in 1748, ten years after Herculaneum was uncovered.
Today Pompeii is one of the most visited and celebrated sites in Italy. The years of excavations have unearthed a mountain of information that has allowed for better insight into the lives of the ancients. Along with buildings and pottery the remains of human beings were also found during the digs. Injected with plaster, the bodies are near perfect forms and some even still wear the terrorized expressions of the fateful day when Vesuvius erupted. Although chilling, the bodies bring to the fore that the tragedy at Pompeii was one suffered through by human beings, the same who brought to life the cities currently being unearthed.
Various paintings, objects, and frescoes were also discovered, several of quite an erotic nature. It is thought that the Roman culture was more liberal than modern Western society, although many images--such as phalluses--were actually related to fertility rather than sexuality. Some of the racier findings, such as a large fresco depicting the god of fertility with a large penis, have been covered up since being found.
Smaller and wealthier than Pompeii, Herculaneum was also buried under layers of ash following Vesuvius' eruption. Herculaneum is most famous for being the first source of Roman skeletal remains for study, few had been available previously as Romans generally burned their dead. During excavations archaeologists also uncovered various buildings and ancient houses from the town. These buildings are grouped in various blocks at the site and have been numbered, Insula II to Insula VII. The first home in Insula II, the House of Aristides, opens directly onto an atrium. Unfortunately, the house is in poor condition as it was damaged during past excavations.
Pompei - Italy - Unesco World Heritage Site.
The House of Argus, also in Insula II, was named because of a beautiful fresco of Argus and Io found in its main reception room, but which has since been lost. This particular house is believed to have been the villa of an important person in the ancient town. It is among the very few houses in Herculaneum where a second floor exists in good condition.
The House of Genius and the House of Alcove are also quite important structures. The House of Genius has not been fully excavated, but is quite spacious, and the House of Alcove is two different buildings that were joined together. The original flooring of the house is still well preserved and its beautiful frescoes can still be seen.
One of the most important buildings in Herculaneum is the Villa of the Papyri, one of the most luxurious villas found at the site. The sea-facing villa boasts four different terraces and has been identified as having belonged to Julius Caesar's father-in-law. The only library to survive from that era was found inside. Various scrolls from the villa have now been moved to the National Library in Naples.
Oplontis is the main archeological site in Torre Annunziata, which like Pompeii and Herculaneum was destroyed by volcanic ash and is located near the modern day city of Naples. Excavations have revealed houses and villas of the ancient city, including the famous Villa Poppaea, which belonged to Emperor Nero's wife.
Open to the public, the Villa was discovered in the 20th century along with the Villa of Crassius Tertius. It is believed that the name of the ancient town was derived from the baths in Oncino. Today a large group of villas can be seen located right in the middle of the town of Torre Annuziata. Several of the priceless artifacts undercovered at the sight have been moved to the Archaeological Museum in Naples for preservation.
Take a trip back in time to the ancient cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Torre Annuziata. Visitors today can see the remains of Vesuvius' destruction, some of the homes and bodies amazingly well preserved by the volcanic ash. An ancient tragedy has become a useful tool for modern scholars, archaeologists, and scientists to learn more about the mighty Romans.